Sách Giải Bài Tập và SGK

1. Định nghĩa - Câu trực tiếp: Câu trực tiếp là lời nói xuất phát trực tiếp từ người nói

1. Định nghĩa

- Câu trực tiếp: Câu trực tiếp là lời nói xuất phát trực tiếp từ người nói và thường được đặt trong dấu ngoặc kép.

Ví dụ: "I am hungry", Bob said.

- Câu gián tiếp: Câu gián tiếp hay còn gọi là câu tường thuật là thuật lại lời nói của người khác, không thuật lại đầy đủ các từ ngữ nhưng ý nghĩa vẫn giữ nguyên và không nằm trong dấu ngoặc kép.

Ví dụ: Bob said he was very hungry.

2. Cách biến đổi câu trực tiếp sang câu gián tiếp (câu tường thuật)

*Những thay đổi về thì của động từ

Thì ở câu trực tiếpThì ở câu gián tiếp
1. Hiện tại đơn (Simple Present)
Ex: “I work for a post office”, she said.
Quá khứ đơn (Simple Past)
She said she worked for a post office.
2. Hiện tại tiếp diễn (Present Continuous)
Ex: “I am feeling ill” Tom said to me
Quá khứ tiếp diễn (Past Continuous)
Tom told me that he was feeling ill.
3. Hiện tại hoàn thành (Present Perfect)
Ex: Tom said: “I haven’t done it”
Quá khứ hoàn thành (Past Perfect) Tom said he hadn’t done it
4. Hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn
Ex: “I’ve been waiting for 2 hours”, Jack said
Quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn
Jack said he had been waiting for 2 hours.
5. Quá khứ đơn (Simple Past)
Ex: “I didn’t do it”, he said.
Quá khứ hoàn thành (Past Perfect)
He said he hadn’t done it
6. Quá khứ tiếp diễn (Past Continuous)
Ex: “I was lying”, he said.
Quá khứ hoàn thành tiếp diễn ( Past perfect Continuous)
He said he had been lying
7. Quá khứ hoàn thành (Past Perfect)
Ex: “I had already done my homework”, Bob said.
Quá khứ hoàn thành (Past Perfect)
Ex: Bob said he had already done his homework.
8.Tương lai đơn (Simple Future)
Ex: “I’ll buy it”, Tom said.
Tương lai ở quá khứ (Future in the past)
Tom would buy it.
Ngoài ra, còn có một số thay đổi với các động từ khiếm khuyết (modal verbs)

Câu trực tiếpCâu gián tiếp
CanCould
Must/ have toHad to
MayMight
WillWould
Shall/ ShouldShould
Needn’tDidn’t have to
*Chuyển trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn và thời gian theo quy luật:

Câu trực tiếpCâu gián tiếp
This
Ex: “I want to buy this pen.”
That
She said she wanted to buy that pen.
These
Ex: “I want to buy these pens.”
Those
She said she wanted to buy those pens.
Here
Ex: “I want to sit here.”
There
Ex: She said she wanted to sit there.
Now
Ex: “I am sitting in front of TV now.”
Then
She said she was waiting in front of TV then.
Today
Ex: “Today I have a test”
That day
She said she had a test that day.
Yesterday
Ex: “I had a test yesterday.”
The day before/ The previous day. She said she had a test the day before.
Tomorrow
Ex: “I’ll have a test tomorrow.”
The next day/ The following day. She said she would have a test the next day.
Ago
Ex: “I had a test 2 days ago.”
Before
She said she had had a test 2 days before.
Last night
Ex: “I watched TV with my mother last night.”
The night before/ The previous night.
She said she had watched TV with her mother the night before.
Next week
Ex: “I will go on a picnic next week.”
The following week/ The week after.
She said she would go on a picnic the following week.
The day before yesterday
Ex: “I had a test the day before yesterday.”
Two days before/ earlier
She said she had had a test 2 days before.
*Thay đổi đại từ:

- Đại từ nhân xưng

Câu trực tiếpCâu gián tiếp
IHe/ she
We/ youThey
You (nếu là chủ ngữ)They/ I/ he/ she
MeHim/ her
UsThem
You (nếu là tân ngữ)Them/ me/ him/ her
- Đại từ sở hữu:

Câu trực tiếpCâu gián tiếp
MyHis/ her
OurTheir
YourTheir/ my/ his/ her
MineHis/ hers
OursTheirs
YoursTheirs/ mine/ his/ hers
- Đại từ this/ that, these/ those

+ “This, that” có thể đổi thành “it”

+ “These, those” có thể đổi thành “that/ them”

Ví dụ: Mary said: “This is the first time I’ve broken my arm.”

→ Mary said that it was the first time she had broken her arm.

3. Tường thuật câu kể (Statements)

S1 + say(s)/ said (that)+ S2 + verb

S1 + tell(s)/ told + O + (that) + S2 + verb

Ví dụ: “I feel really fed up with my job.” said Susan.

→ Susan said that she felt really fed up with her job.

→ Susan told me that she felt really fed up with her job.

4. Tường thuật câu hỏi

S + asked/ wanted to know/ wondered + if/ weather+ S + V

*Câu hỏi Yes/No: 

- Thêm If/ Whether để mở đầu cho mệnh đề tường thuật.

- Trật từ câu hỏi (động từ trước chủ ngữ) chuyển thành trật tự câu kể (chủ ngữ + động từ). Bỏ do/does/did nếu có, đổi thì của động từ trong mệnh đề tường thuật lùi về quá khứ một thì và thay đổi các yếu tố khác như địa từ, sở hữu, tân ngữ, các từ chỉ thời gian, nơi chốn,…

Ví dụ: “Are you angry?” he asked. → He asked if/whether I was angry.

*Wh-questions (Câu hỏi có từ để hỏi: what, where, when, how…)

S + asked (+O)/ wanted to know/ wondered + what/ who/…. + S+V

- Không dùng If/ Whether mà dùng lại các từ để hỏi sẵn có (what/ where/ when,…) để mở đầu cho mệnh đề tường thuật.

- Các biến đổi khác thực hiện giống như khi tường thuật câu hỏi Yes/No

Ví dụ: “What are you talking about?” said the teacher.

→ The teacher asked us what we were talking about.

5. Tường thuật câu mệnh lệnh, cầu khiến, khuyên bảo, đe dọa, lời mời, ngỏ ý …

*Khẳng định:

S + told/ asked/ advised/ reminded/ agree/ offer/ refuse... + O + to-V

Ví dụ: “Please wait for me here, Mary.” Tom said. (yêu cầu)

→ Tom told Mary to wait for him there.

*Phủ định:

S + told/ asked/ advised/ reminded/ agree + O + NOT to-V

Ví dụ: “Don’t talk in class” the teacher said to us. → The teacher told us not to talk in class.

6. Tường thuật lời đề nghị

S + suggested + ( someone ) + V_ing

Ví dụ: “Why don’t you send her some flowers?” he said.

→ He suggested me sending her some flowers.

7. Tường thuật với câu điều kiện

Nếu trong lời nói trực tiếp có câu điều kiện, thì chỉ có câu điều loại I là có sự thay đổi về THÌ, hai loại câu điều kiện còn lại thì vẫn giữ nguyên hình thức động từ của chúng.

Ví dụ: “If I have a time, I will visit her,” he said.

→ He said that if he had time, he would visit her.

Task 1. Rewrite these following sentences with the same meaning

1. She said, "I am reading."

→ She said that.......

2. They said, "We are busy."

→ They said that ….......

3. He said, "I know a better restaurant."

→ He said that.........

4. She said, "I woke up early."

→ She said that.......

5. He said, "I will ring her."

→ He said that.......

6. They said, "We have just arrived."

→ They said that.......

7. He said, "I will clean the car."

→ He said that.......

8. She said, "I did not say that."

→ She said that.......

9. She said, "I don't know where my shoes are."

→ She said that.......

10. He said: "I won't tell anyone."

→ He said that.......

Hiển thị đáp án

1. She said that she was reading.

2. They said that they were busy.

3. He said that he knew a better restaurant.

4. She said that she had woken up early.

5. He said that he would ring her.

6. They said that they had just arrived.

7. He said that he would clean the car.

8. She said that she had not said that.

9. She said that she did not know where her shoes were.

10. He said that he would not tell anyone.

Task 2. Rewrite these following sentences with the same meaning

1. "Where is my umbrella?" she asked.

→ She asked.......

2. "How are you?" Martin asked us.

→ Martin asked us.......

3. He asked, "Do I have to do it?"

→ He asked.......……

4. "Where have you been?" the mother asked her daughter.

→ The mother asked her daughter.......

5. "Which dress do you like best?" she asked her boyfriend.

→ She asked her boyfriend.......

6. "What are they doing?" she asked.

→ She wanted to know.......

7. "Are you going to the cinema?" he asked me.

→ He wanted to know.......

8. The teacher asked, "Who speaks English?"

→ The teacher wanted to know......

9. "How do you know that?" she asked me.

→ She asked me.......

10. "Has Caron talked to Kevin?" my friend asked me.

→ My friend asked me.......

Hiển thị đáp án

1. She asked where her umbrella was.

2. Martin asked us how we were.

3. He asked if he had to do it.

4. The mother asked her daughter where she had been.

5. She asked her boyfriend which dress he liked best.

6. She wanted to know what they were doing.

7. He wanted to know if I was going to the cinema.

8. The teacher wanted to know who spoke English.

9. She asked me how I knew that.

10. My friend asked me if Caron had talked to Kevin.

Task 3. Rewrite these following sentences with the same meaning

1. The doctor said to me, “You should lose weight.”

The doctor advised me.......

2. Mary said, “Let’s go to a movie.”

Mary suggested.......

3. “I didn’t break the windows”, Bill said.

Bill denied.......….

4. “You told a lie, Tom”, she said.

She accused Tom.......

5. “I can’t go to your birthday party next Saturday evening, Jack”, said Mary.

Mary apologized for.......

Hiển thị đáp án

1. The doctor advised me to lose weight.

2. Mary suggested going to a movie

3. Bill denied breaking the windows

4. She accused Tom of telling a lie.

5. Mary apologized for not going to Jack’s birthday party next Saturday evening.

Task 4. Rewrite these following sentences with the same meaning

1. “I won’t help you with your homework. Never ! ” Jane said to me.

Jane refused........

2. Joe said, “Please come to my party.”

Joe invited........

3. Mr. Gray said, “Don’t play in the street.”

Mr. Gray warned the children not.......

4. “Would you like to come on a picnic with us?

They invited.......

5. “Please don’t tell anybody what happened.”

He asked.......

Hiển thị đáp án

1. Jane refused to help me with my homework.

2. Joe invited me to his party.

3. Mr. Gray warned the children not to play in the street.

4. They invited me to come on a picnic with them.

5. He asked me not to tell anybody what had happened.

Task 5. Rewrite these following sentences with the same meaning

1. “If you don’t give me a pay rise. I’ll resign.”

She threatened......

2. “I’ll finish the work by the end of this week.”

John promised......

3. “You ought to take a break, Andrew.”

She advised......

4. “Don’t forget to go to the supermarket after work.”

They reminded......

5. “Why don’t we sing a few songs?”

He suggested.......

Hiển thị đáp án

1. She threatened me to resign if I didn’t give her a pay rise.

2. John promised to finish the work by the end of that week .

3. She advised Andrew to take a break.

4. They reminded to go to the supermarket after work.

5. He suggested singing a few songs.

Task 6. Chuyển các câu sau về dạng câu trần thuật

1. “If the weather is fine, I will go on a picnic with my friends,” she said.

.......

2. “What would you do if you had three days off ?” I asked him.

.......

3. “I would have come to see you if I had known your address, Jim” she said.

.......

4. “I’m sure she will help you if you ask her.” , he told me

.......

5. “If Today were Sunday, we wouldn’t go to school.” They said to me.

.......

6. She said to me, “If I were you, I wouldn’t tell her about this.

.......

7. “There would not be enough seats if a lot of guests came.”

.......

8. “You will be surprised if you meet him.” , Peter said to Linda.

.......

9.The boy said : “I won’t be strong if I don’t swim everyday.”

.......

10. “What would you do if you saw a snake ?” Nam asked Nga.

.......

Hiển thị đáp án

1. She said if the weather was fine, she would go on a picnic with her friends.

2. I asked him what he would do if he had (had) three days off.

3. She told Jim that she would have come if she had known his address.

4. He told me that he was sure she would help if I asked her.

6. They told me that if that day had been Sunday, they would have gone to school.

7. She told me that if she were me, she would have told her about that.

8 . If a lot of guest had come, there would have been not enough seats.

9. Peter told Linda that she would be surprised if she met him.

10. The boy said that he would not be strong if he did not swim everyday.

Task 7. Chuyển các câu sau về dạng câu trần thuật

1. “We’ll have lunch outside in the garden if it’s not cold.” ,Mr John said.

.......

2. “Tom would win more races if he trained hard.” , The man said.

.......

3. “If you feel like a chat, phone me tonight.” David said to me.

.......

4. “If you isn’t eating so much junk food, you would be a lot fitter.” Mother said.

.......

5. “I will be surprised if Mary doesn’t pass the exam.” , our teacher said.

.......

6. “If I knew her hobbies, I could let you know.” He said to me.

.......

7. “If I won the lottery, I would buy a new car.” , the man said.

.......

8. “If you had listened to my advice, you wouldn’t have made such a big mistakes.” Julia said to LiLi.

.......

Hiển thị đáp án

1. Mr John said that they would have lunch outside in the garden if it was not cold.

2. The man said that Tom would have won more races if he had trained.

3. David told me to phone him that night if I felt like a chat.

4. My mother told me that I would be a lot fitter if I had not been eating so much junk food.

5. Our teacher said that she would be surprised of Mary did not pass the exam.

6. He told me that he could have let me known if he had known her hobbies.

7. The man said that he would have bought a new car if he had won the lottery.

8. Julia told LilLi that she would not have made such a big mistake if she had listened to Julia’s advice.

Task 8. Chọn đáp án đúng nhất.

1. Jack asked me _____.

A. where do you come from?

B. where I came from

C. where I came from

D. where did I come from?

2. She asked me _____ I liked pop music.

A.when     B.what     C.if     D.x

3. The doctor ____ him to take more exercise.

A. told     B. tell     C. have told     D. are telling

4. I wanted to know_____ return home.

A. when would she

B. when will she

C. when she will

D. when she would

5. Claire told me that her father____ a race horse.

A. owns     B. owned     C. owning     D. A and B

Hiển thị đáp án

1. C

2. C

3. A

4. D

5. D

Task 9. Here are some things that Sarah said to you:

Hiển thị đáp án

I’ve been to the Untied States.I can’t drive.
I don’t have any brothers or sisters.I don’t like fish.
I’m working tomorrow evening.Dave is lazy.
Jane has a very well – paid job.Jane is a friend of mine.
But later Sarah says something diffierent to you.What do you say?
SarahYou
1 Dave works very hard.But you said he was lazy.
2 Let’s have fish for dinner.But.......
3 I’m going to buy a car........
4 Jane is always short of money........
5 My sister lives in Paris........
6 I think New York is a great place........
7 Let’s go out tomorrow evening........
8 I’ve never spoken to Jane........
2. But you said you didn’t like fish

3. but you said you couldn’t drive

4. But you said she had very well-paid job

5. But you sai you didn’t have any brothers or sisters

6. But you said you had never been to the United States

7. But you said you were working tomorrow evening

8. but you said she was friend of yours.

Task 10. Somebody says something to you which is the oppsite of what they said earlier. Complete the answers.

1. A: That restaurant is expensive

B: Is it? I thought you said it was cheap.

2. A: Sue is coming to the party tonight.

B: Is she? I thought you said she …………………

3. A: Sarah likes Paul.

B: Does she? Last week you said …………………..

4. A: I know lots of people.

B: Do you? I thought you said ……………………

5. A: Jane will be here next week.

B: Will she? But didn’t you say …………………..

Hiển thị đáp án

2. she wasn’t coming somewhere else/ … she was staying at home.

3. she didn’t like him

4. you didn’t know anybody

5. she wouldn’t be here